Revealing The Hidden Pannonian And Central Balkan Mesolithic: New Radiocarbon Evidence From Serbia ScienceDirect

All these results have been reported in the conventional scientific literature. 7 In long-term dating, isotopes of heavy metals such as Uranium are usually involved, with decay half lives normally being in the millions of years. If such accelerated decay actually occurred, it is probable that whatever 14C had existed before that time would have been converted back into nitrogen. Though there have been improvements in the technology since then, Lee’s general criticism remains valid.

Supplementary Materials

Radiocarbon dating works by comparing the three different isotopes of carbon. Isotopes of a particular element have the same number of protons in their nucleus, but different numbers of neutrons. This means that although they are very similar chemically, they have different masses.

Strontium isotopes document greater human mobility at the start of the Balkan Neolithic

The intra-crystalline fractions are obtained by crushing samples and age them to prolonged wet chemical oxidation. Radiocarbon dating is the most common method by far, according to experts. This method involves measuring quantities of carbon-14, a radioactive carbon isotope — or version of an atom with a different number of neutrons. After it forms high up in the atmosphere, plants breathe it in and animals breathe it out, said Thomas Higham, an archaeologist and radiocarbon dating specialist at the University of Oxford in England.

Plants get most of their carbon from the air in the form of carbon dioxide , and animals get most of their carbon from plants (or from animals that eat plants). Relative to their atmospheric proportions, atoms of 14C and of a non-radioactive form of carbon, 12C, are equally likely to be incorporated into living organisms. While a plant or animal is alive, the ratio of 14C/12C in its body will be nearly the same as the 14C/12C ratio in the atmosphere. When the organism dies, however, its body stops incorporating new carbon.

Scientists can determine the age of ancient objects by the method of radiocarbon dating. The bombardment of the upper atmosphere by cosmic rays converts nitrogen to a radioactive isotope of carbon, 14C, with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Vegetation absorbs carbon dioxide through the atmosphere, and animal life assimilates 14C through food chains. When a plant or animal dies, it stops replacing its carbon, and the amount of 14C present begins to decrease through radioactive decay. Therefore, the level of radioactivity must also decay exponentially.

It’s assumed to be the same number of carbon-14 atoms as in elephants living today. With time, those sand grains fell to the bottom bowl, so the new number represents the carbon-14 atoms left in the mammoth skull when we found it. The difference in the number of sand grains represents the number of carbon-14 atoms that have decayed back to nitrogen-14 since the mammoth died. Because we have measured the rate at which the sand grains fall (the radiocarbon decay rate), we can then calculate how long it took those carbon-14 atoms to decay, which is how long ago the mammoth died. Next comes the question of how scientists use this knowledge to date things. If carbon-14 has formed at a constant rate for a very long time and continually mixed into the biosphere, then the level of carbon-14 in the atmosphere should remain constant.

Faunal remains

Here’s something to worry about, if you’re given to that sort of thing. Over the course of a human life, over 50 billion or so radiocarbon molecules emit radiation. This means that the radiocarbon that is the very stuff of life may be a source of dangerous genetic mutation. When a living thing dies, it takes in no more atmospheric or dietary radiocarbon.

The maximum theoretical age obtainable by radiocarbon dating depends on the instrument used to do the analyses. The older beta counting instrument was stretched to get results of 50,000 years, whereas the AMS instrument should be effective up to 95,000 years. The other factor is what has become known as the “radiocarbon barrier” at around 55,000–60,000 years. But new research shows that commonly accepted radiocarbon dating standards can miss the mark — calling into question historical timelines. Several reasons have been proposed for the patchy Mesolithic record and large blank areas in Southeastern Europe, namely the environmental changes, presumed low human population densities, taphonomic issues, and the lack of targeted research. Also, given that the Early Holocene shore-lines mainly lie below present sea level as a result of marine transgression, many sites along the Black, Aegean and Adriatic coasts could have been submerged or eroded in the process (Gurova and Bonsall 2014).

Either theory means that the “deep time” indicated by radioactive decay is an illusion that would only be valid if radioactivity was always only occurring at today’s slow rates. However, as we go even further back in time, the effect of the magnetic field becomes staggering. The field strengths for dates as recent as 20,000 BCE are so intense that the electric current required to produce such a field would destroy the earth’s core. Barnes estimates that the heating effect of the current required would be about 250 million times what it is today. Unless one is prepared to believe that the magnetic field in the past was stable—an idea that conflicts with all the direct observational evidence—one must accept that the earth is much younger than evolutionists claim it to be.

Their results were ‘two to three times less accurate than implied by the range of error they stated.’  They thought the variations might have been caused by poor laboratory standards allowing contamination of the samples. The radioactive carbon (Carbon-14, aka 14C) is a carbon isotope usually formed in the upper atmosphere as a byproduct of cosmic radiation. Cosmic rays are atomic nuclei from outside our solar system, moving at enormous speeds. When they strike ordinary atoms in the upper atmosphere, the cosmic rays smash them apart. This collision is less destructive than the initial collision that produced them.

And the result of this accepted method dates dinosaur fossils to around 68 million years old. The only major thing that must be considered is if the eggs have been treated with fire, as this radically throws off their racemisation. However, through careful calibration, Penkman’s team has successfully been able to find and exclude unusable shell.